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  • Katie Glenn

Hormone Therapy for Gender Dysphoria May Raise Cardiovascular Risks

WASHINGTON (Feb 23, 2023) -

People with gender dysphoria taking hormone replacements as part of gender affirmation therapy face a substantially increased risk of serious cardiac events, including stroke, heart attack and pulmonary embolism, according to a study presented at the American College of Cardiology's Annual Scientific Session Together With the World Congress of Cardiology.

Gender dysphoria occurs when a person's gender identity conflicts with the sex they were assigned at birth. Gender affirmation therapy, part of a process known as transitioning, includes a variety of medical, psychological and behavioral interventions to help individuals, many of whom identify as transgender, acquire secondary sex characteristics that align with their gender identity. Recent data suggest about 1 million to 1.6 million people identify as transgender in the U.S. and that hormone therapy use is rising rapidly, especially among teens and young adults.


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